Domain name, domain names,name domain

Domain name, domain names,name domain

Identification string in the Internet – A Domain name It is a Strings In defining the area of ​​administrative autonomy, authority or control Internet. Domain names are used in various networking contexts and for application-specific naming and addressing purposes. Generally, a domain name is a Network domain or one Internet protocol (IP) resources, such as a personal computer used to access the Internet, or a server computer. Domain names are often used to identify services offered over the Internet, e.g Websites And E-mail Services. As of 2017, 330.6 million domain names were registered.[1]

Domain names are created by rules and procedures Domain name system (DNS) Any name registered in DNS is a domain name. Domain names are organized into lower levels (subdomains). DNS root domain, nameless. First-level domains are a collection of domain names. Top-level domains (TLDs), the General top-level domains (gTLDs), such as eminent domain Com, Information, The net, eduAnd orgAnd Country code top level domains (ccTLDs). Below these top-level domains in the DNS hierarchy are secondary and tertiary domain names that are normally open for reservation by end users who create or operate other publicly accessible Internet resources to connect local area networks to the Internet. Websites.

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Second or third level domain name registration is usually managed by a Domain name registrar Selling the services to the public.

A Fully qualified domain name (FQDN) is a fully qualified domain name with all identifiers in the DNS hierarchy, with no parts omitted. Typically, an FQDN ends with a period (.) to indicate the top of the DNS tree.[2] They are identifiers in the domain name system. The case is not heardAnd so it can be written in any desired capitalization method, but most domain names are written in lower case in technical situations.[3]


Domain names are more memorable than the numeric addresses used in Internet protocols as text-based identifiers to identify Internet resources such as computers, networks, and services. A domain name can represent an entire collection of these resources or individual instances. Individual Internet host computers use domain names as host identifiers, also called Hostnames. The word Host name It is also used for layer tags in the domain name system, often without an additional subordinate domain namespace. Hostnames are displayed as components Uniform Resource Locators (URLs) for Internet resources such as Websites (eg,

Domain names are also used as simple identifiers to indicate property ownership or control. Examples of such are the state identifiers used in Session initiation protocol (SIP), Domain keys It is used to verify DNS domains E-mail systems, and many others Uniform Resource Identifiers (URIS)

An important function of domain names is to provide numbers that are easily recognizable and memorable. their address Internet resources. This abstraction allows any resource to be moved to a different physical location in the network’s address topology, either globally or locally. Internet. Such a step usually requires changing the property’s IP address and the corresponding translation of this IP address to the domain name.

Domain names are used to establish a unique identity. Organizations can choose a domain name that matches their name, helping Internet users to easily reach them.

A generic domain is a name that describes a general category, rather than a specific or individual example, an industry name, rather than a company name. Here are some examples of generic names., music.comAnd Travel information. Companies have created brand names based on generic names, and such generic domain names can be useful.[4]

Domain names are often referred to simply Domains And domain name registrants are mentioned frequently Domain ownersAlthough domain name registration does not confer any legal ownership with the registrar, it is only the right to use it for a limited period of time. Using domain names in business can buy them. Trademark law.


The practice of using a simple, memorable abstract of the host’s numerical address on a computer network began in 1998. ARPANET era, before the advent of today’s commercial Internet. In the original network, each computer on the network retrieved the hosts file (host.txt) from the computer at SRI (now SRI International),[5][6] It maps computer host names to numeric addresses. The rapid growth of the network made it impossible to maintain a centrally organized registry of host names, and in 1983 the domain name system was introduced on the ARPANET and Internet Engineering Task Force such as RFC 882 and RFC 883.

The following table shows the first five .com Domains with registration date:[7]

Domain name

Registration date






And the first five .Edu Domains:[8]

Domain name

Registration date






Domain name space

The hierarchical domain name system, organized into zones, each served by domain name servers.

Today, the Internet Corporation for Assigned Names and Numbers (ICANN) manages the high-level development and architecture of the Internet domain name space. It allows Domain name registrarIn which domain names can be registered and reassigned.

Hierarchy of accounts in a fully qualified domain name

The domain name is a a tree Domain names. Each node in the tree contains information related to the domain name. The tree is divided into Zones Since DNS root zone.

Domain name syntax

A domain name consists of one or more parts, technically called AccountsCommonly combined and limited by dots, e.g

The right-most label forwards Top level domain; For example, a domain name It is a top level domain. Com.

The hierarchy of domains descends from right to left by name; Each label on the left side defines a subdivision, or sub domain The domain on the right. For example: the account for example Define the intersection As a subdomain Com domain, and www It is an account to create. www.example.comsubdomain Each account can contain from 1 to 63. Oct. The null tag is reserved for the root node and when fully qualified, the null tag is defined as terminated by a. Point. The full domain name in its textual representation must not exceed 253 ASCII characters in total length.[9]

A Host name It is a domain name with at least one corresponding IP address. For example, domain names And They are also hostnames, but the Com Not a domain. However, other top-level domains, esp Country code top level domainsOf course they may have IP addresses, and if so, hostnames as well.

Hostnames impose restrictions on the characters allowed in the corresponding domain name. A valid hostname is also a valid domain name, but a valid domain name may not necessarily be the same as a hostname.

Top level domains

When the domain name system was developed in the 1980s, the domain name space was divided into two main groups of domains.[10] of Country code top level domains (ccTLD) are primarily based on two-character region codes. ISO-3166 Abbreviation of country. In addition, a group of seven General top-level domains (gTLD) has been implemented representing name categories and multi-entity collections.[11] These were the domains. gov, edu, Com, Miles, org, The netAnd int. These two types Top-level domains (TLDs) are the Internet’s top-level domain names. Create top-level domains DNS root zone Hierarchy Domain name system. Every domain name ends with a top-level domain identifier.

During the development of the Internet, it became desirable to create more generic top-level domains. As of October 2009, there are 21 generic top-level domains and 250 two-letter country-code top-level domains.[12] In addition, the ARPA A domain serves technical purposes in the domain name system infrastructure.

In the year In 2008, at the 32nd International People’s Congress in Paris,[13] ICANN has launched a new TLD naming policy to adopt oneA big step forward in introducing new generic top-level domains”This program features many new or pre-planned domains as well as a new application and implementation process.[14] Observers believed the new rules could lead to the registration of hundreds of new top-level domains.[15] In the year The program was launched in 2012 and received 1930 applications.[16] In 2016, it reached the milestone of 1000 live gTLDs.

of Internet assigned numbers authority (IANA) maintains a list of top-level domains defined in DNS root zone Databases.[17]

For special purposes, such as network testing, documentation, and other applications, IANA also reserves domain names for special use.[18] This list contains such domain names for example, Local, localhostAnd Test. Other top-level domain names containing trademarks are registered for corporate use. Issues include brands BMW, GoogleAnd Canon.[19]

Secondary and lower level domains

They are the ones below the top-level domains in the domain name hierarchy. Secondary domain (SLD) names These are names directly to the left of .com, .net and other top-level domains. For example, in the domain, Co It is a secondary domain.

Next are the tertiary domains, which are written immediately to the left of the secondary domain. It can be fourth – and …

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